Journal of Health Sciences & Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles


A Review on Properties, Application, and Analytical Methods of an Antihypertensive Drug efonidipine

Grishma H Patel, Shreya D Adeshra, Dhananjay B Meshram

Citation Information : Patel GH, Adeshra SD, Meshram DB. A Review on Properties, Application, and Analytical Methods of an Antihypertensive Drug efonidipine. J Health Sci Res 2019; 10 (2):52-56.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10042-1084

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 03-11-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Qualitative and quantitative estimation plays a significant role in ensuring safety and efficacy of drugs in different matrices. A detailed literature survey is one of the most crucial requirement for all research activities. Efonidipine (EFN) is a new antihypertensive agent that inhibits both L-type and T-type calcium channels. It was launched in 1995, under the brand name of Landel, and marketed by Shionogi and Co. On August 28, 2017, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) granted the approval of the drug in India under the brand name of Efnocar to Zuventus Healthcare Ltd. This article examines published physical properties, pharmacokinetic data, analytical methods, and clinical trials reported in the literature for the determination of EFN in biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. They include various techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, evolved gas analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and LC-MS/MS. There is no marketed formulation available in combination of EFN with other drugs, but recently Ajanta Pharma got approval for the combination of EFN with telmisartan in tablet form.

  1. “Recommendations” (PDF). 34th SEC (Cardiovascular and Renal) Meeting. Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, Government of India. 11 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-07.
  2. “Efonidipine” accessed on July 2019,
  3. “Efonidipine” accessed on July 2019,
  4. Ritter M, Lewis D, Mant GK. A Textbook of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 2008.
  5. “World Health Ranking On Hypertension” accessed on March 2020,
  6. Walker R, Whittlesea C. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2012.
  7. Goyal RK. Elements of Pharmacology 2007.
  8. Beevers G, Lip G, O'Brien E. The pathophysiology of hypertension 2001.
  9. “Efonidipine” accessed on July 2019,
  10. Abraham DJ. Burger's medical Chemistry and Drug Discovery 2007.
  11. Masuda Y, Tanaka S. Efonidipine hydrochloride: a new calcium antagonist. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 1994;12(2):123–135. DOI: 10.1111/j.1527-3466.1994.tb00287.x.
  12. Tanaka H, Shigenobu K. Efonidipine hydrochloride: a dual blocker of L- and T-type ca(2+) channels. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2002;20(1):81–92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1527-3466.2002.tb00084.x.
  13. Masumiya H, Shijuku T, Tanaka H, et al. Inhibition of myocardial L- and T-type Ca2+ currents by efonidipine: possible mechanism for its chronotropic effect. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;349(2-3):351–357. DOI: 10.1016/S0014-2999(98)00204-0.
  14. Ikeda K, Isaka T, Fujioka K, et al. Suppression of aldosterone synthesis and secretion by ca(2+) channel antagonists. Int J Endocrinol 2012;2012:519467. DOI: 10.1155/2012/519467.
  15. Hayashi K, Homma K, Wakino S, et al. T-type ca channel blockade as a determinant of kidney protection. Keio J Med 2010;59(3):84–95. DOI: 10.2302/kjm.59.84.
  16. Nakabeppu H, Asada M, Oda T, et al. Plasma and urinary metabolites of efonidipine hydrochloride in man, Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. Xenobiotica 1996;26(2):229–390. DOI: 10.3109/00498259609046703.
  17. Oh IY, Seo MK, Lee HY, et al. Beneficial effect of efonidipine, an L- and T-type dual calcium channel blocker, on heart rate and blood pressure in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Korean Circ J 2010;40(10):514–519. DOI: 10.4070/kcj.2010.40.10.514.
  18. Harada K, Nomura M, Nishikado A, et al. Clinical efficacy of efonidipine hydrochloride, a T-type calcium channel inhibitor, on sympathetic activities. Circ J 2003;67(2):139–149. DOI: 10.1253/circj. 67.139.
  19. Wang N, Ye L, Zhao B, et al. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of efonidipine with bovine serum albumin. Braz J Med Biol Res 2008;41(7):589–595. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2008000700007.
  20. Kumar A, Shoni SK, Dahiya M, et al. Development and validation of liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methodology for estimation of efonidipine HCl ethanolate (EFD). Pharm Anal Acta 2017; 8(5):547.
  21. Liu M, Deng M, Zhang D, et al. A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the spectrospecific determination of efonidipine in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016;122:35–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016. 01.039.
  22. Liu H, Zhao H, Tong Y, et al. Determination of efonidipine in human plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic applications. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2015;103:1–6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2014.11.001.
  23. Otsuka M, Maenoa Y, Fukamib T, et al. Developmental considerations for ethanolates with regard to stability and physicochemical characterization of efonidipine hydrochloride ethanolate. CrystEngComm 2015. 1–5. DOI: 10.1039/C5CE00751H.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.