Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a severe adverse drug reaction, consisting of progressive bone destruction in the maxillofacial region of patients. Dental screening and adequate treatment are fundamental to reducing the risk of osteonecrosis in patients under antiresorptive or antiangiogenic therapy, or before initiating the administration. The treatment of BRONJ is generally difficult and the optimal therapy strategy is still to be established. This article elucidates the clinical indications and mechanism of action of bisphosphonates (BPs), reports some of the clinical diagnostic criteria for BRONJ, and describes the histopathological criteria for BRONJ diagnosis, the potential triggering pathways, and the available treatment strategies.
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