DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10042-1075 |
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Shakuntala B, Sirisha P, Kulkarni MP. Dental Caries Experience among School-going Children Based on Diet, Physical Activity, and Adiposity in South Bengaluru: A Questionnaire Study. J Health Sci Res 2019; 10 (1):1-6.
Introduction: Dental caries remains to be a significant health concern since childhood. Caries prevalence in developing nations has increased due to an array of factors such as diet, low socioeconomic status, exposure to fluorides, ethnicity, age, the limited access to oral health services, and other lifestyle factors. Childhood obesity and physical activity are interrelated and have known to influence dental caries prevalence.
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of diet, physical activity, and adiposity in children from schools of two different lifestyles and its influence on dental caries.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by recruiting 300 children in the age group of 6–10 years. The schools were categorized into two groups: group I—day scholar schools and group II—residential schools. The data regarding the diet, physical activity, and adiposity were collected using a questionnaire given to the child and the parent. Anthropometric measurements of all the children were recorded.
Results: The consumption of junk and access to gadgets was greater in group I children compared to that in group II and the amount of physical activity was greater in residential schools. The group I school children were known to be more obese compared to the children from group II and a statistical significance was seen with the caries experience among the two groups.
Conclusion: Diet, physical activity, and adiposity could influence the dental caries experience among school-going children.
Introduction: Most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and the composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment, and the caries is a reflection of the adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk.
Aim: The present study was aimed to determine and compare the role of plaque toward caries risk during their mixed dentition.
Materials and methods: Fifty children of 6–12 years age group of both sexes were examined for plaque status of subjects using “Turesky–Gilmore–Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index” and caries using deft and decayed missing filled index (DMFT) separately and caries risk assessment tool (CAT).
Statistical analysis: The data were collected and tabulated and were analyzed using the SPSS software V.22, IBM., Corp. Descriptive analysis of all study variables was done using the number and the frequency for categorical data whereas in terms of mean and standard deviation for continuous data.
Results: The high caries risk group demonstrates significantly a higher mean plaque index (PI) score (p = 0.04) and mean dental caries score (p = 0.03) compared to the low and the moderate caries risk group.
Conclusion: The present study sample consists of a higher proportion (44%) of the high caries risk group which necessitates oral health promotion specifically adopting the common risk factor approach.
Introduction: The use of ice or cold application post-extraction manages pain, anxiety, and behavioral problems in children. The patient management skill brings out a positive attitude toward dental treatment.
Aim: The aim of the study is to identify the posttreatment alteration in the child's apprehensiveness toward dental extractions under local anesthesia (LA).
Materials and methods: A study consisting of two groups (n = 20), aged 6–8 years old children were included. Extraction was done under LA. Data were collected through a questionnaire which was given immediately after the procedure and 30 minutes later after giving an ice cream.
Result: In the present study, the results were statistically significant as 80–90% of the children in the study group who received ice cream felt less pain, discomfort, and apprehension than 50% of the children who did not receive an ice cream.
Conclusion: Reinforcement techniques have always provided a positive influence on the child's response to any dental procedures.
Introduction: Tobacco causes various adverse effects such as oral precancer, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and myocardial infarction, etc. Passive smoking is inhalation of smoke called second-hand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke by persons other than active smoker. Tobacco smoke contains thiocyanate (SCN), which can enter the human body through ingestion or inhalation. Various adverse effects have been reported due to increased serum SCN concentration. Serum and salivary SCN levels have been used to evaluate toxicity among active smokers. However, screening of exposure to tobacco among passive smokers needs to be studied. Estimation of salivary SCN can be a useful indicator for the same.
Aim: Estimation and comparison of the salivary SCN levels in active and passive smokers.
Materials and methods: Twenty passive smokers and 10 active smokers aged between 18 years and 21 years, with the history of minimum of 1 cigarette/day, for a minimum period of 3 months were included in the study. Active smokers with history of chewable tobacco and passive smokers with history of chewable/nonchewable tobacco, patients under nitroprusside therapy, alcohol consumption, and any systemic diseases were excluded from the study. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected and was stored at −20°C. Salivary SCN levels were estimated.
Results: Study shows increased salivary SCN level in active and passive smokers with increased number of cigarettes and duration of exposure. Study revealed positive correlation with salivary SCN level and increase in number of cigarettes and exposure among passive smokers. Sensitivity and specificity are 70% and 80%, respectively.
Conclusion: Salivary SCN can be used for screening of passive smokers for the exposure of tobacco to monitor their associated toxicity.
Clinical significance: Passive smoking is inhalation of smoke called second-hand smoke or the environmental tobacco smoke by persons other than active smoker. Tobacco smoke contains SCN, which can enter the human body through ingestion or inhalation. Various adverse effects have been reported through increased serum SCN concentration. The present study significantly indicates that passive smokers are at equal risk to tobacco smoke as active smokers.
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10042-1072 |
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Nichal M, Dodwad V, Mangalekar S, Vhanmane P, Patil S, Lulla SJ. Micro-osteoperforations (Minimally Invasive Corticotomy Procedure for Accelerated Orthodontic Treatment): A Case Report. J Health Sci Res 2019; 10 (1):18-21.
Micro-osteoperforation is an effective, minimally invasive procedure to accelerate tooth movement and significantly reduces the duration of orthodontic treatment. This technique has several advantages including faster tooth movement, enhanced post-orthodontic treatment stability. In this case report, an adult patient undergoing orthodontic treatment was referred to the department of periodontology for the opinion regarding corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment. A full thickness mucoperiosteal flap was reflected on buccal side, micro-osteoperforations were made using a round bur with a micro-motor and only 3 micro-osteoperforations were made to reduce the invasiveness. This approach assumed minimum trauma to the cortical bone. Pre- and postoperative measurements were done on study casts on the day of surgery and after 45 days. Micro-osteoperforation site had a space closure of 1.5 mm compared to the control site. Micro-osteoperforations significantly increased the rate of tooth movement by 1–2-fold. The patient did not report any significant discomfort during or after the procedure.
The temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and imaging like cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Now, it is accomplished using objective measurement technologies like T-scan (digital analysis of occlusion), joint vibratography (JVA), electromyography (EMG), joint tracker (JT), and ultralow frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Clinical implications: A scientific method for TMD diagnosis and treatment is presented to help clinician to diagnose the situation before planning any treatment.
Karthik J Kabbur,
Ramnarayan B Krishnaprasad,
Sowbhagya M Basavaraju
Median rhomboid glossitis (MRG), also called central papillary atrophy of the tongue, was initially attributed to be a developmental disorder of the tongue that occurred due to the failure of tuberculum impar to withdraw before the union of the lateral halves of the tongue. However, now it is believed to be a lesion arising due to chronic candidal infection. Occasionally it may be associated with the erythematous lesion on the palate just opposing the tongue lesion, referred to as the kissing lesion. In this article we report a case of median rhomboid glossitis with a palatal kissing lesion in a 30-year-old male patient.