The efficacy of probiotics or the viable bacteria specifically in the oral cavity with proven health benefits acts as a natural approach against the naturally developing microbiome imbalance and is enormously popular worldwide. To put a stop to oral diseases, probiotics bring to us an imperative concept of biological changes in microbial flora. Various clinical studies reveal the reduction in the concentration of bacteria causing dental caries, halitosis, and periodontitis. The prevention and control of oral malodor or halitosis is spotlighted as it unswervingly affects the communal life in polygenic unfavorable ways. This paper evaluates the present acquaintance, etiology, verdict, and promising management approaches for oral malodor with probiotics.
With the increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), biological risk factors, such as hyperglycemia, are a major public health concern in Bangladesh. Optimization of diabetes management by positive lifestyle changes is urgently required for prevention of comorbidities and complications, which in turn will reduce the cost. Diabetes had 2 times more days of inpatient treatment, 1.3 times more outpatient visits, and nearly 10 times more medications than nondiabetes patients, as reported by the British Medical Journal. And surprisingly, 80% of people with this so-called “Rich Man's Disease” live in low- and middle-income countries. According to a recent study of the American Medical Association, China and India collectively are home of nearly 110 million diabetic patients. The prevalence of diabetes in this region is projected to increase by 71% by 2035. Bangladesh was ranked as the eighth highest diabetic populous country in the time period of 2010–2011. In Bangladesh, the estimated prevalence of diabetes among adults was 9.7% in 2011 and the number is projected to be 13.7 million by 2045. The cost of diabetes care is considerably high in Bangladesh, and it is primarily driven by the medicine and hospitalization costs. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, in 2017, the annual average cost per T2DM was $864.7, which is 52% of per capita GDP of Bangladesh and 9.8 times higher than the general healthcare cost. Medicine is the highest source of direct cost (around 85%) for patients without hospitalization. The private and public financing of diabetes treatment will be severely constrained in near future, representing a health threat for the Bangladeshi population.
Bhagyashree M Nair,
Sowbhagya Malligere Basavaraju,
Oral mucosa has the potential to give rise to reactive lesions that are non-neoplastic in nature. A wide variety of lesions differing from developmental to neoplastic type can be elicited. Lesions that arise in response to chronic irritation to the oral mucosa are referred to as reactive lesions. Agents like calculus, sharp cuspal tips, overhanging dental restorations, masochistic habits, ill-fitting prosthesis and appliances, and food impactions are the most common etiological factors. These lesions simulate each other in their clinical behavior. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to clinically correlate these lesions with histopathological features to avoid misdiagnosis of the conditions. The most commonly found lesions are traumatic fibroma (TF), pyogenic granuloma (PG), epulis fissuratum (EF), peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG).
Melanocytes are specialized cells derived from the fourth germ layer—the neural crest cells. They play an important role in human pigmentation through their ability to produce melanin. In addition to skin, melanocytes are also seen in eyes, ear, adipose tissue, brain, heart, and oral mucosa. Although melanin production is the chief function, melanocytes located in various other parts of the body have different roles. These dendritic cells identified in the oral mucosa are very much similar to epidermal melanocytes. The information on oral mucosal melanocytes is mainly from the research conducted on epidermal melanocytes. Hence, the knowledge on the development, morphology, and functions of oral mucosal melanocytes is very much limited. Therefore, this review is to provide more insights into the biophysiological aspects of oral mucosal melanocytes.
Grishma H Patel,
Shreya D Adeshra,
Dhananjay B Meshram
Qualitative and quantitative estimation plays a significant role in ensuring safety and efficacy of drugs in different matrices. A detailed literature survey is one of the most crucial requirement for all research activities. Efonidipine (EFN) is a new antihypertensive agent that inhibits both L-type and T-type calcium channels. It was launched in 1995, under the brand name of Landel, and marketed by Shionogi and Co. On August 28, 2017, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) granted the approval of the drug in India under the brand name of Efnocar to Zuventus Healthcare Ltd. This article examines published physical properties, pharmacokinetic data, analytical methods, and clinical trials reported in the literature for the determination of EFN in biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. They include various techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, evolved gas analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and LC-MS/MS. There is no marketed formulation available in combination of EFN with other drugs, but recently Ajanta Pharma got approval for the combination of EFN with telmisartan in tablet form.