How to cite this article:
Vathariparambath N, Krishnamurthy NH, Chikkanarasaiah N. Morphological Location of Mandibular and Mental Foramen in Teenagers: A Cone-beam Computed Tomography Study. J Health Sci Res 2020; 11 (1):1-5.
Introduction: Pain control is an important aspect of the behavior management of pediatric dental patients. Local anesthesia is still a widely used technique for pain control in pediatric dental treatment in which inferior alveolar nerve block is fundamental for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular restorative and surgical procedures. The assessment of the mandibular foramen (MF) and mental foramen (MeF) is of considerable importance for mandibular nerve anesthesia. There may be failure of mandibular nerve block due to improper assessment of the location of the MF and MeF resulting in painful treatment procedures especially in children. A considerable variation in the location of the MF and MeF was reported among different population, in different ages, and even within the same individual on two sides. Aim and objective: To determine the location of the MF and MeF in teenagers using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 100 MF and MeF (right and left) were obtained from 100 CBCT images of children (13–18 years). Distance from MF to the anterior border (AB) of ramus (A), posterior border of ramus (P) and inferior border of the mandible (MI), most superior point of the curvature of mandibular notch (MN), occlusal plane of the mandibular permanent molars (O), and the distance from MeF to lower border of mandible (BM) and to the alveolar crest (AC) were measured. Results: There was a significant increase in A-MF, MI-MF, MN-MF, and O-MF values with age. A-MF and MI-MF values of females were statistically higher than those of males and MF was located at the occlusal plane at 13 years and then moves upward. There was a significant difference in BM-MeF value with age (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The location of the MF is just posterior to the middle of the ramus and MF and MeF are shifting posterosuperiorly with increasing age.
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Giriraju A, Ananya JN, Raju M, Ashli VK. Assessment of the Level of Anxiety Related to Dental Treatment among Undergraduate Students in a Dental College of Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: An Online Pilot Survey. J Health Sci Res 2020; 11 (1):6-11.
Background: Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling that occurs when something undesirable is going to happen, while fear is the expecting threat from an identifiable source. Aim and objective: To assess the level of anxiety related to dental treatment among undergraduate students in a dental College of Bengaluru. Materials and methods: For data collection, an online digital survey App, namely, Surveymonkey.com was used. At the outset, the said App was installed. A questionnaire containing four relevant questions was prepared and sent to the respondents/participants, that is, all the undergraduate dental students of a dental college in Bengaluru through e-mail. Results: In the survey carried out among 334 respondents, 75.08% were female and remaining 24.92% were male. There were seven age categories based on year of study (1st year to IV-year BDS). The seven age categories were distributed as follows: 18 years of age (8.08%), 19 years of age (22.46%), 20 years of age (27.54%), 21 years of age (21.56%), 22 years of age (11.68%), 23 years of age (3.59%), and 24 years of age (5.09%). Further, the percentage of respondents based on year of study is as follows: First year BDS (27.03%), second year (33.33%), third year (19.52%), and fourth year (20.12%). The results revealed that the dental students experience less fear and anxiety during dental treatment due to their familiarity and awareness toward the subject.
Unegbu V Nnachetam,
How to cite this article:
Nnachetam UV, Florence O, Charity O, Pius E. Phytochemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyces (Zobo Flower) Extracts on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Health Sci Res 2020; 11 (1):12-16.
Introduction:Hibiscus sabdariffa plant has been used in many ways both for industrial purposes and medicinal uses. It has been discovered to have antimicrobial properties. Aim and objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was determined using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the plant extracts on the test isolates were determined using the micro broth dilution method. Results: The phytochemical analysis showed that terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, saponin, alkaloids, and anthraquinolones were present in varying concentrations of the different extracts. The methanol extract of H. Sabdariffa calyces possesses more antimicrobial activity (13–24 mm) in a concentration-dependent manner than the aqueous extract (7–20 mm). The MIC of different extracts of S. aureus was between 25 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL while that of E. coli was also between 12.5 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL. The MBC of different extracts of S. aureus was between 25 and 50 mg/mL while that of E. coli was between 6.25 and 50 mg/mL. Conclusion: It can be concluded that some secondary metabolites present in H. sabdariffa calyces was responsible for the observed inhibition of the bacteria seen in this study. The methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces possesses more antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner than the aqueous extract. Therefore, the test plant could be used to manufacture drugs that could be used to treat infections caused by the test organisms.
Aim and objective: This article reviews various methods for prevention of Frey syndrome. Background: Frey syndrome is a late postoperative phenomenon seen mostly after parotidectomy procedures, trauma to the parotid gland, facelift procedures, and rarely after neck dissections. First discovered by Baillarger in 1853 and later described by Lucja Frey in 1923, it is characterized by gustatory sweating and flushing. It results from damage to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply to the face and the parotid gland. The patients suffering from this syndrome initially complain of sweating near the ear, face, and forehead site on mastication. Clinical significance: Frey syndrome is a condition associated with psychological concerns among patients and exhibits as a social embarrassment. The need for prevention of this syndrome is thereby necessary to provide patients with improved quality of life. Various medical as well as surgical methods have been employed to prevent Frey syndrome. Conclusion: This review article encompasses these various medical and surgical procedures. Long term studies are still to be done to evaluate the efficacy of the surgical procedures.
Aim and objective: To evaluate the prognosis of an immediate loaded endosseous implant. Background: Immediate loaded implants have become the need of the hour owing to the increasing esthetic demand and have overcome the disadvantages of traditional loading by reducing the treatment time, reducing the period of edentulism, and reducing the need of a second stage of surgery and patient discomfort. Case description: A patient reported to us for prosthetic rehabilitation of his missing teeth with respect to the upper right back tooth region. An immediately loaded endosseous implant of the dimension 4.2 × 13 mm was placed and prosthesis was restored. The patient was followed up for a period of 5 years. Conclusion: After a period of 5 years, the area around the implant showed negligible amount of crestal bone loss. Immediate loaded implants can be considered as a reliable treatment protocol owing to the high success rate. Clinical significance: Careful case selection, thorough treatment planning with an expert implant team, and follow-up of surgical and prosthetic protocols are essential for the success of an implant.
Hampapura Shivananda Dharmesh,
Bharathi V Srinivas,
Rajkumar S Alle,
Orthodontic disimpaction of impacted maxillary canines requires careful planning of anchorage and proper traction technique to achieve controlled movement of canines through the bone and attached gingiva for maximum esthetics and periodontal health. Trans-XX is a modified transpalatal appliance to simultaneously disimpact an impacted canine along with arch expansion.
Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has metamorphosed itself into a life-threatening and pressing issue of the day; moreover, it has challenged health professions and systems and has evoked different speeds of reaction and types of response around the world. The transmission of virus via contact with droplets and aerosols generated during dental clinical procedures and chances of cross-contamination pose high risk. This is where the role of dental professionals crop-up in preventing the transmission of COVID-19. Hence, this survey aims to gauge the awareness, prevention, and precaution among dentists regarding COVID-19 by circulating the questionnaire among the dental practitioners and clinicians mostly in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted which consisted of 22 questions. A total of 122 active participants were included in the study. Results: Everyone was apprehensive of COVID-19 and its brief history. A majority (108) of the participants had information principally from social media as their main source followed by the newspaper, well-versed knowledge that it affects the respiratory system and it is absolutely necessary to follow protocols for prevention. Unseeming paradoxical views was noted on the influence of social media. A compelling response was noted when asked regarding patient concern during the dental procedures. In all, 34.5% agreed on no, 37.2% agreed on yes, and 28.1% were on a maybe. The participating group is also aware of the appropriate precautionary measures to be taken. In all, 81.7% of the participants comply with the N-95 respirator while treating the patients. The most pliable option in combating COVID-19 would be to stay safe and furnish elite information and precautions to the patients and the society. Conclusion: Preponderance of the dentists are aware of the virus, its survival, and its complications. We should also clear the facts on the vulnerability of COVID-19. Although chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant and antiseptic, hydrogen peroxide and glutaraldehyde are said to be the best disinfectants to combat against the virus. The patient may be worried to opt for any procedure, but it should be the responsibility of the dentist to manage and follow proper protocol to disinfect and sterilize the equipment to minimize patient infection and cross-contamination. Nonetheless, it is important to stress on the personal protective equipment (PPE) usage. Strictly speaking, it may not be the need of the hour to continue dental care; however, we should not hesitate to attend emergencies.